Testing and Diagnostic Evaluations
Comprehensive Laboratory Testing

Complete Blood Testing - Deluxe Addition:

 

Weight Loss and Vitality offers the most comprehensive and exclusive diagnostic evaluation available.  Testing includes Performance, Advanced Heart Health, Advanced Thyroid, Omegas, Systemic inflammation, and Complete Hormone Profile.  Testing includes over seventy two bio markers and blood test.

 

Advanced Cholesterol Panel

 

Our advanced cardiovascular and lipid panels go beyond typical blood test from your provider with the intent to identify early risk factors for heart disease.

Tests: Total Cholesterol, HDL, LDL, Triglycerides, APO A1, ApoB, LP(a) LP-PLA2,

 

Nutrition Health

 

All cells and tissues in the body are dependent on the delivery of oxygen by our red blood cells.

Tests: CBC, CK, Folate, Uric Acid, Vit B12, Iron, TIBC, Ferritin, Transferrin, Vitamin D, PTH, and Electrolytes.

 

Advanced Inflammation

 

Complete assessment related to systemic inflammation.  These tests are useful to detect and monitor infection, injury, and certain inflammatory diseases.

Tests: CRP, Homocysteine, IGG, IgA, IgE

 

Diabetic Profile

 

Diabetes and metabolic syndrome are among the fastest growing chronic diseases in the United States.  The Profile provides a comprehensive look into your glucose and insulin metabolism.

Test: HbA1c, Glucose, Fructosamine, Insulin and C-peptide

 

Performance Hormones:

 

Hormone deficiency has numerous effects on the body including decrease muscle growth, fat storage, mood, libido, mental cognitive function, energy level, hair patterns, aging and ability to handle stress.  The deluxe addition testing offers a complete diagnostic approach.

Test: Testosterone (total and free), DHEA, SHBG, Cortisol, LH, FSH, Growth Hormone, Free T3, Prolactin, HCG, Estradiol, Progesterone, TSH, T3, Osteocalcin, and PSA.

 

Advanced Thyroid:

 

Imbalances in thyroid hormones cause problems with weight gain or loss, fatigue, mental disorders, sleeping pattern disturbances, to name a few.

Test: T3 Total, T3 Free, T4 Total, T4 Free, Anti TPO, Anti T and RT3

 

Liver and Kidney Performance:

 

Your kidney and liver detoxify your body of harmful environmental pollutants.  Understanding your liver and kidney health is critical to preventing and treating chronic diseases.

Test: Bun/Creatinine, ALP, ALT, AST, GGT, LDH, Bilirubin, Albumin, Amylase, Pancreatic, and Total Protein.

Comprehensive Preventive Imaging

Advanced Imaging/Screening/Preventative Health Studies

 

Exam

Purpose

Heart - CTA Heart Coronary Arteries Screening with Contrast

A coronary computed tomography angiogram (CTA) is a heart-imaging test that helps your doctor determine whether fatty deposits or calcium deposits have built up in your coronary arteries, the arteries that supply blood flow to the heart.

Bone - DXA Bone Densitometry Examination-DEXA

Bone density scanning, also called dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) or bone densitometry, is an enhanced form of x-ray technology that is used to measure bone loss. DEXA is today's established standard for measuring bone mineral density (BMD).

Carotid Arteries - Doppler Carotid Scan Bilateral

Carotid ultrasound is a painless imaging test that uses high-frequency sound waves to create pictures of the inside of your carotid arteries. ... The transducer is a handheld device that sends and receives sound waves. If combined with Doppler ultrasound, this test also can show how blood is moving through your arteries.  This study provides early diagnosis of a narrowed carotid artery which can lead to stroke and death.

Heart - Echocardiogram 2D with Spectral Color Flow Doppler -ECHO

The purpose of this study is to determine the size of your heart, to evaluate how well your heart is functioning or pumping and to assess the structure and function of the valves within the heart. A 2-D (or two-dimensional) echocardiogram can display a cross-sectional “slice” of the beating heart, including the chambers, valves and the major blood vessels that exit from the left and right ventricle. A Doppler echocardiogram measures the speed and direction of the blood flow within the heart. It screens the four valves for leaks and other abnormalities. By assigning color to the direction of blood flow, (Color Flow Mapping), large areas of blood flow may be studied. 

Prostate - US TRANSRECTAL Prostate -PRST

Ultrasound of the prostate uses sound waves to produce pictures of a man’s prostate gland and to help diagnose symptoms such as difficulty urinating or an elevated blood test result. It’s also used to investigate a nodule found during a rectal exam, detect abnormalities, and determine whether the gland is enlarged. Ultrasound is safe, noninvasive, and does not use ionizing radiation.

Breast - Screening Digital Mammogram w/CAD & TOMOSYNTHESIS 3D

Breast tomosynthesis, also called three-dimensional (3-D) mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), is an advanced form of breast imaging, or mammography, that uses a low-dose x-ray system and computer reconstructions to create three-dimensional images of the breasts. Breast tomosynthesis aids in the early detection and diagnosis of breast disease.

Breast - Screening Digital Mammogram w/CAD

A mammogram is an x-ray picture of the breast. It can be used to check for breast cancer in women who have no signs or symptoms of the disease. It can also be used if you have a lump or other sign of breast cancer. Screening mammography is the type of mammogram that checks you when you have no symptoms.

Heart  - Calcium Scoring CT Without Contrast-HRT

Coronary calcium scans use a special X-ray test called computed tomography (CT) to check for the buildup of calcium in plaque on the walls of the arteries of the heart (coronary arteries). ... Coronary calcium scans are also called cardiac calcium scoring. The coronary arteries supply blood to the heart.

Abdomen - MRI With & Without (or) Without Contrast

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a type of noninvasive test that uses magnets and radio waves to create images of the inside of the body. The magnets and radio waves create cross-sectional images of the abdomen, which allows doctors to check for abnormalities in the tissues and organs without making an incision.  In some cases, contrast material may be used during the MRI scan to show certain structures more clearly in the pictures. The contrast material may be used to check blood flow, find some types of tumors, and show areas of inflammation or infection.

Pelvis - MRI Without or W/WO Contrast

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a type of noninvasive test that uses magnets and radio waves to create images of the inside of the body. The magnets and radio waves create cross-sectional images of the pelvis, which allows doctors to check for abnormalities in the tissues and organs without making an incision.  The contrast material checks blood flow, find some types of tumors, and show areas of inflammation or infection.

Uterus - Hysterosonography

Hysterosonography, is a noninvasive technique that involves the slow infusion of sterile saline solution into a woman’s uterus during ultrasound imaging.  Hysterosonography allow the doctor to evaluate abnormal growth inside the uterus; abnormalities of the tissue lining the uterus; or disorders affecting deeper tissue layers.  Hysterosonography does not require either radiation or contrast media, and is a non-surgical procedure.

Pelvis – UltraSound

A pelvic ultrasound is a noninvasive diagnostic exam that produces images that are used to assess organs and structures within the female pelvis.  A pelvic ultrasound allows quick visualization of the female pelvic organs and structures including the uterus, cervix, vagina, fallopian tubes and ovaries.

Comprehensive Nutritional Testing

NutrEval® FMV

 

Unlike any other nutritional assessments, NutrEval FMV® provides a framework of core nutrients in 5 key areas: Antioxidants, B Vitamins, Digestive Support, Essential Fatty Acids, and Minerals. In this test, the Amino Acids are measured in a convenient first-morning urine collection.


Need for Nutritional Testing

 

Many patients experience chronic illnesses because of nutritional deficiencies. NutrEval® offers nutritional recommendations based on a patient’s individual test results. Clinicians commonly use such testing to determine the nutritional deficiencies that are at the root of chronic conditions such as:

 

  • Mood disorder
    • Depression
    • Anxiety
    • Sleep disturbance
  • Fibromyalgia or Fatigue
  • Optimized health and sports fitness

 

An Advanced Diagnostic Tool

 

Genova designed the NutrEval® profile to give physicians a better understanding of patients' nutritional deficiencies. By combining testing in 5 key areas of core nutrients, physicians are offered a depth of insight into a patient's overall nutritional status unrivaled in the laboratory industry. Genova diagnostics has created an enhanced report that synthesizes the results of more than 100 individual biomarkers into one, easy-to-interpret overview, as well as a personalized patient supplementation schedule.

 

The NutrEval® Profile includes:

 

  • Metabolic Analysis Profile

    Metabolic Analysis assessment provides information on 45 key organic acids. These biomarkers are grouped into easy-to-understand categories, and provide insight for functional support in the areas of: malabsorption & dysbiosis; cellular energy & mitochondrial metabolism; neurotransmitter metabolism; vitamin deficiencies; and toxin exposure & detoxification need.

  • Amino Acids Analysis

    Amino Acids analysis features either plasma (37 total) or urine (41 total) amino acids. This assesses nutritionally essential and non-essential amino acids, as well as intermediary metabolites that augment an understanding of B vitamin need, and need for support of protein digestion & absorption.

  • Essential & Metabolic Fatty Acids Analysis

    Essential and Metabolic Fatty Acids Analysis provides a high level overview of the balance of various families of fatty acids in relation to each other: Omega 3, 6 and 9 Fatty Acids; Saturated Fatty Acids; and Monounsaturated Omega 7 and Trans Fats. It also provides key ratios for understanding cardiovascular risk, including the Omega 3 Index.

  • Elemental Analysis, Packed Eyrthrocytes

    Elemental Profiles provide information in two categories: Nutrient Elements which evaluates intracellular nutrient status, and Toxic Elements which evaluate short-term toxic element exposure.

  • Oxidative Stress

    Oxidative Stress biomarkers highlight the body’s current state of oxidative stress and reserve capacity. Markers of oxidative injury assess cell membrane (lipid peroxides) and DNA (8-hydroxydeguanosine/8-OHdG) damage, while direct measurement of glutathione and CoQ10 provide insight into antioxidant reserve available to counter free-radical impact. Additional markers are available in our Oxidative Stress 2.0 profile.

Gastrointestinal Health Testing

Clinical Overview

What is the GI Effects Comprehensive Stool Profile?

GI Effects is an innovative stool test measuring premier biomarkers of gastrointestinal function, providing valuable clinical insight into digestive performance, gut inflammation, and the gut microbiome — areas affecting not only GI health, but overall health as well.

The sophisticated biomarkers from the GI Effects Comprehensive Profile are reported using an intuitive DIG framework, providing key clinical information for three main gastrointestinal functional areas:

 

  • Digestion/Absorption:
    • Pancreatic Elastase-1, a marker of exocrine pancreatic function
    • Products of Protein Breakdown, markers of undigested protein reaching the colon
    • Fecal Fat, markers of fat breakdown and absorption


 

  • Inflammation/Immunology:
    • Calprotectin, a marker of neutrophil-driven inflammation; produced in abundance at sites of inflammation, this biomarker has been proven clinically useful in differentiating between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)*
    • Eosinophil Protein X, a marker of eosinophil-driven inflammation and allergic response
    • Fecal Secretory IgA, a marker of gut secretory immunity and barrier function
    • Additional biomarkers available: Fecal Lactoferrin


 

  • Gut Microbiome:
    • Metabolic indicators, demonstrating specific and vital metabolic functions performed by the microbiota
      • Short-Chain Fatty Acids, a metabolomic indicator of GI microbiome health
      • Beta-glucuronidase, an inducible enzyme involved in the metabolism and bioavailability of food and drug compounds; also produced by gut bacteria


 

  • Commensal Bacteria, demonstrating the composition, diversity, and relative abundance of gut organisms, all of which are linked to both gastrointestinal and general health
    • More than 95% of commensal gut organisms are anaerobic and are difficult to recover by traditional (aerobic) culture techniques; molecular DNA techniques are now considered the standard for anaerobic bacteria assessment in research, permitting identification and quantification of multiple organisms with a single specimen.
    • The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) methodology can identify bacterial populations at any level of taxonomy, as broadly as phylum and as narrowly as species. This ability permits analysis of the gut microbiome at a desired degree of complexity.
    • GI Effects assesses a key set of 24 clinically relevant genera/species that map to 7 major phyla.


 

  • Bacterial and mycological culture, which demonstrate the presence of specific beneficial and pathological organisms
    • Traditional bacterial culture complements DNA-based tests to provide an expanded survey of a patient's gut microbiota, beyond the specific organisms targeted by PCR.


 

  • Parasitology
    • GI Effects provides microscopic examination of fecal specimens for ova and parasites (O&P), the gold standard of diagnosis for many parasites.
    • Enzyme immunoassay (EIA), widely recognized for its diagnostic utility in the detection of pathogenic antigens, is used for the identification of Cryptosporidium, Entamoeba histolytica, and Giardia lamblia.
    • Determination of one-day or three-day sample collection is based on clinician's clinical index of suspicion for parasitic infection. If no/low suspicion, a one day sample will likely be adequate. If high suspicion, a three day sample collection is optimal.


 

  • Additional biomarkers available:
    • Campylobacter EIA
    • Clostridium difficile EIA
    • Escherichia coli EIA
    • Helicobacter pylori Stool Antigen EIA

 

When should the GI Effects Comprehensive Stool Profile be considered?

 

GI Effects assesses three critical areas of gut health: digestive function, gut inflammation, and the gut microbiome—areas affecting not only GI health, but overall health as well. For patients with symptoms that may have gastrointestinal dysfunction as their root cause, comprehensive stool diagnostics provide an effective tool for gaining clinical insight into next steps.

 

In addition to performing critical digestive functions, the intestinal tract contains significant amounts of organisms — the gut microbiome. Imbalances in this internal ecosystem have been associated in the scientific literature with a wide variety of common illnesses including, but not limited to:

 

  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
  • Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)
  • Diabetes
  • Obesity
  • Cardiovascular Disease
  • Celiac and Other Malabsorption Disorders
  • Mood Disorders
  • Autoimmune
  • Autism


 

Assessing and normalizing GI function can have profound effects on overall health, leading to improvement in these and other conditions. The GI Effects® Comprehensive Stool Profile is a critical clinical tool in the management of patients presenting with symptoms that can be associated with compromised gut health.

 

What advantage does the profile offer compared to other diagnostics?

 

GI Effects® represents the best technical platform to assess gut health, including an optimized PCR molecular assay for anaerobic bacteria, Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) technology for identification of cultivable species, as well as premier biomarkers for stool-based gastrointestinal diagnostics.

 

The test report is organized so that the clinician may move through results in a logical order that enhances clinical utility, starting with an innovative Interpretation-At-A-Glance cover page.

 

  • Using evidence-based rules and weighted algorithms, this page synthesizes patient test results into Four Functional Pillars of clinical significance (Infection-Inflammation-Insufficiency-Imbalance) and provides a directional indication of potential therapeutic next steps in patient management.
  • Diversity Association and Relative Abundance of gut microbiota is also reported on this page, providing both a proxy measure of gut biodiversity and the patient's levels of selected key organisms relative to similar measures in a healthy cohort of individuals.


 

What can clinicians and patients expect from GI EffectsComprehensive Profile stool testing?

 

Functional testing can help uncover the root cause of many chronic conditions that often frustrate both physician and patient. The scope of the premier biomarkers on the GI Effects Stool Profile provides comprehensive information to the clinician for the development of strategic interventions. As identified functional imbalances and inadequacies become more normalized through targeted dietary, lifestyle, and supplementation therapeutics, intractable symptoms often improve for many patients.

 

Each biomarker is associated with specific pertinent therapies, but general therapeutic considerations include:

 

  • Discerning general evidence of bowel inflammation and providing intestinal mucosal and anti-inflammatory support
  • Addressing any identified infection with appropriate pharmacological and botanical treatments
  • Supporting commensal bacteria with pre/probiotic supplements and dietary changes


 

A structured diagnostic panel, like the GI Effects Comprehensive Stool Profile, is easier for patients and clinicians to implement in practice compared to the stressors associated with serial testing. The GI Effects Comprehensive Stool Profile also helps to provide enhanced clinical accuracy in determining which patients may need additional, more invasive testing.

Individual Lab Test Defined

Advanced Thyroid Testing

T3 Total

Total T3 measurements are used to diagnose and monitor treatment of hyperthyroidism and are essential for recognizing T3toxicosis.

T3 Free

This test is used to diagnose hyperthyroidism and to clarify thyroid status in the presence of a possible protein binding abnormality.

T4 Total

For diagnosis of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism.

T4 Free

For diagnosis of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism.

Anti TPO

Assists in the diagnosis of thyroid diseases such as endemic goiter, Graves Disease, autoimmune thyroiditis, Addison's Disease, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, Hashimoto's Disease and polyendocrine auto-immunopathies.

Thyroid Globulin

Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG), a glycoprotein produced in the liver, binds both thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) with high affinity. Because TBG accounts for 76% of plasma protein thyroxine-binding activity, an increase or decrease in its circulating level alters total concentrations of T4 and T3 in blood, leading to potential confusion with true thyroid gland dysfunction. A number of diseases and medications, as well as inherited alterations in TBG gene expression, can change the serum TBG concentration. Measurement of TBG is useful in distinguishing quantitative TBG derangements from thyroid dysfunction. This analyte is elevated with estrogen therapy (especially oral contraceptive agents), during pregnancy and or hepatitis. Serum TBG may be decreased in cirrhosis, in the nephritic syndrome and by androgens.

RT3

The assay may be useful in the diagnosis of nonthyroidal illness (NTI). Patients with NTI have low Tconcentrations and increased concentrations of rT3. RTmay be useful in neonates to distinguish euthyroid sick syndrome from central hypothyroidism.

 

 

 

Performance/Hormones

Testosterone Free

Helpful in assessing testicular function in males and managing hirsutism, virilization in females.

Testosterone Total

Testosterone circulates almost entirely bound to transport proteins: Normally less than 1-2% is free. The principal transport protein for testosterone is known as sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) or testosterone-estradiol binding globulin (TeBG). Testosterone measurements are used to assess erectile dysfunction, infertility, gynecomastia, and osteoporosis and to assess hormone replacement therapy.

DHEA

DHEA-S is the sulfated form of DHEA and is the major androgen produced by the adrenal glands. This test is used in the differential diagnosis of hirsute or virilized female patients and for the diagnosis of isolated premature adrenarche and adrenal tumors. About 10% of hirsute women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) have elevated DHEA-S but normal levels of other androgens.

SHBG

Testosterone, dihydrotestosterone and estrogens circulate in serum bound to Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG). SHBG concentrations are increased in pregnancy, hyperthyroidism, cirrhosis, oral estrogen administration and by certain drugs. Concentrations are decreased by testosterone, hypothyroidism, Cushings syndrome, acromegaly and obesity.

Cortisol

Cortisol is increased in Cushing's Disease and decreased in Addison's Disease (adrenal insufficiency).

LH/FSH

FSH and LH are secreted by the anterior pituitary in response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GNRH) secreted by the hypothalamus. In both males and females, FSH and LH secretion is regulated by a balance of positive and negative feedback mechanisms involving the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, the reproductive organs, and the pituitary and sex steroid hormones. FSH and LH play a critical role in maintaining the normal function of the male and female reproductive systems. Abnormal FSH levels with corresponding increased or decreased levels of LH, estrogens, progesterone, and testosterone are associated with a number of pathological conditions. Increased FSH levels are associated with menopause and primary ovarian hypofunction in females and primary hypogonadism in males. Decreased levels of FSH are associated with primary ovarian hyper-function in females and primary hypergonadism in males. Normal or decreased levels of FSH are associated with polycystic ovary disease in females. In males, LH is also called interstitial cell-stimulating hormone (ICSH). Abnormal LH levels with corresponding increased or decreased levels of FSH, estrogens, progesterone, and testosterone are associated with a number of pathological conditions. Increased LH levels are associated with menopause, primary ovarian hypofunction, and polycystic ovary disease in females and primary hypo-gonadism in males. Decreased LH levels are associated with primary ovarian hyperfunction in females and primary hyper-gonadism in males.

IGF-1

Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I, or somatomedin C), a protein involved in stimulating somatic growth, is regulated principally by growth hormone (GH) and nutritional intake. IGF-I is transported in serum by several proteins; this helps maintain relatively high IGF-I plasma levels and minimizes fluctuations in serum IGF-I concentrations.
Measuring IGF-I is useful in several growth-related disorders. Dwarfism caused by deficiency of growth hormone (hypopituitarism) results in decreased serum levels of IGF-I, while acromegaly (growth hormone excess) results in elevated levels of IGF-I. IGF-I measurements are also helpful in assessing nutritional status; levels are reduced in undernutrition and restored with a proper diet.

IGF-BP3

“Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3, also known as IGFBP-3, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IGFBP3 gene. IGFBP-3 is one of six IGF binding proteins (IGFBP-1 to IGFBP-6) that have highly conserved structures and bind the insulin-like growth factors IGF-1 and IGF-2 with high affinity.  This protein is involved in stimulating somatic growth and plasma levels influence the amount of growth hormone levels.”

Prolactin

During pregnancy and postpartum lactation, serum prolactin can increase 10- to 20-fold. Exercise, stress, and sleep also cause transient increases in prolactin levels. Consistently elevated serum prolactin levels (>30 ng/mL), in the absence of pregnancy and postpartum lactation, are indicative of hyperprolactinemia. Hypersecretion of prolactin can be caused by pituitary adenomas, hypothalamic disease, breast or chest wall stimulation, renal failure or hypothyroidism. A number of drugs, including many antidepressants, are also common causes of abnormally elevated prolactin levels. Hyperprolactinemia often results in galactorrhea, amenorrhea, and infertility in females, and in impotence and hypogonadism in males. Renal failure, hypothyroidism, and prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas are also common causes of abnormally elevated prolactin levels.

HCG

hCG may reach detectable limits within 7-10 days of conception. hCG is produced by the placenta and reaches a peak between the 7th and 10th week of gestation. hCG is a glycoprotein hormone produced by the syncytiotrophoblast of the placenta and secreted during normal pregnancy and with pathologic conditions such as hydatidiform mole, choriocarcinoma and testicular neoplasm.  Order hCG, Total, Qualitative, Urine, if hCG serum result is inconsistent with clinical presentation.

Estradiol

Measuring the circulating levels of estradiol is important for assessing the ovarian function and monitoring follicular development for assisted reproduction protocols. Estradiol plays an essential role throughout the human menstrual cycle. Elevated estradiol levels in females may also result from primary or secondary ovarian hyperfunction. Very high estradiol levels are found during the induction of ovulation for assisted reproduction therapy or in pregnancy. Decreased estradiol levels in females may result from either lack of ovarian synthesis (primary ovarian hypofunction and menopause) or a lesion in the hypothalamus-pituitary axis (secondary ovarian hypofunction). Elevated estradiol levels in males may be due to increased aromatization of androgens, resulting in gynecomastia.

Progesterone

Levels increase sharply during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. The level increases from 9 to 32 weeks of pregnancy.

Osteocalcin

Osteocalcin, the most abundant non-collagen protein in bone matrix, is a bone-specific, calcium binding protein. Serum osteocalcin levels are related to the rate of bone turnover in various disorders of bone metabolism, e.g., osteoporosis, primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism, and Paget's disease.

PSA

Elevated serum PSA concentrations have been reported in men with prostate cancer, benign prostatic hypertrophy, and inflammatory conditions of the prostate.

 

 

 

Inflammation/Diabetic Profile

CRP

Increased CRP levels are found in inflammatory conditions including: bacterial infection, rheumatic fever, active arthritis, myocardial infarction, malignancies and in the post-operative state. This test cannot detect the relatively small elevations of CRP that are associated with increased cardiovascular risk.

HBA1C

To assist with control of blood glucose levels, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) has recommended glycated hemoglobin testing (HbA1c) twice a year for patients with stable glycemia, and quarterly for patients with poor glucose control. Interpretative ranges are based on ADA guidelines.

Glucose

Glucose levels may be abnormally high (hyperglycemia) or abnormally low (hypoglycemia). Glucose measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of carbohydrate metabolic disorders including diabetes mellitus, idiopathic hypoglycemia, and pancreatic islet cell neoplasm.

Insulin

Insulin is useful in diagnosing hyperinsulinemia in hypoglycemic patients. Hyperinsulinemia may be due to an insulin-producing tumor (insulinoma), syndrome of insulin resistance, or persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy.

 

 

 

Advanced Cholesterol Panel

Total Cholesterol

Total LDL and HDL cholesterol, in conjunction with a triglyceride determination, provide valuable information for the risk of coronary artery disease. Total serum cholesterol analysis is useful in the diagnosis of hyperlipoproteinemia, atherosclerosis, hepatic and thyroid diseases.

HDL

HDL cholesterol is inversely related to the risk for cardiovascular disease. It increases following regular exercise, moderate alcohol consumption and with oral estrogen therapy. Decreased levels are associated with obesity, stress, cigarette smoking and diabetes mellitus.

LDL

LDL cholesterol is a key factor in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and Coronary Artery Disease (CAD), while HDL cholesterol has often been observed to have a protective effect. Even within the normal range of total cholesterol concentrations, an increase in LDL cholesterol can produce an associated increased risk for CAD. LDL cholesterol binds to receptor sites on macrophages in blood vessel walls inciting several changes to the blood wall which enhance atherosclerotic plaque development.

Triglycerides

Serum triglyceride analysis has proven useful in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus, nephrosis, liver obstruction, other diseases involving lipid metabolism, and various endocrine disorders. In conjunction with high density lipoprotein and total serum cholesterol, a triglyceride determination provides valuable information for the assessment of coronary heart disease risk.

Apo B

Apolipoprotein B (APO B) has been reported to be a powerful indicator of CAD. In some patients with CAD, APO B is elevated even in the presence of normal LDL cholesterol.

LP-PLAC

Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), also known as platelet activating factor Acetylhydrolase, is an inflammatory enzyme that circulates bound mainly to low density lipoproteins and has been found to be localized and enriched in atherosclerotic plaques. In multiple clinical trials, Lp-PLA2 activity has been shown to be an independent predictor of coronary heart disease and stroke in the general population. Measurement of Lp-PLA2 may be used along with traditional cardiovascular risk factor measures for identifying individuals at higher risk of cardiovascular disease events. Clinical management may include beginning or intensifying risk reduction strategies. The activity assay is an enzyme assay run on an automated chemistry platform.

APO A1

Apolipoprotein A1 is the primary protein associated with HDL cholesterol. Like HDL cholesterol, increased concentrations are associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease.

 

 

 

Nutrition Health Tests

CBC

A complete blood count is used as a screening test for various disease states including anemia, leukemia and inflammatory processes.

Folate

Folic acid deficiency is common in pregnant women, alcoholics, in patients whose diets do not include raw fruits and vegetables, and in people with structural damage to the small intestine. The most reliable and direct method of diagnosing folate deficiency is the determination of folate levels in both erythrocytes and serum. Low folic acid levels, however, can also be the result of a primary vitamin B12 deficiency that decreases the ability of cells to take up folic acid.

Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 is decreased in pernicious anemia, total or partial gastrectomy, malabsorption and certain congenital and biochemical disorders.

Iron

Serum iron quantification is useful in confirming the diagnosis of iron-deficiency anemia or hemochromatosis. The measurement of total iron binding in the same specimen may facilitate the clinician's ability to distinguish between low serum iron levels caused by iron deficiency from those related to inflammatory neoplastic disorders. The assay for iron measures the amount of iron which is bound to transferrin. The total iron binding capacity (TIBC) measures the amount of iron that would appear in blood if all the transferrin were saturated with iron. It is an indirect measurement of transferrin concentrations but expressed as an iron measurement. To obtain the percent saturation, the serum iron is divided by the TIBC which gives the actual amount of saturated transferrin. The percent saturation is low in iron deficiency and high in iron storage diseases.

TIBC

Transferrin is a direct measure of the iron binding capacity. Transferrin is thus useful in assessing iron balance. Iron deficiency and overload are often evaluated with complementary laboratory tests.

Ferritin

Useful in the diagnosis of hypochromic, microcytic anemias. Decreased in iron deficiency anemia and increased in iron overload.

Transferrin

Transferrin is a direct measure of the iron binding capacity. Transferrin is thus useful in assessing iron balance. Iron deficiency and overload are often evaluated with complementary laboratory tests.

Vit D

Measurement of serum 25-OH vitamin D concentrations provide a good index of circulating vitamin D activity in patients not suffering from renal disease. Lower than normal 25-OH vitamin D levels can result from a dietary deficiency, poor absorption of the vitamin or impaired metabolism of the sterol in the liver. A 25-OH vitamin D deficiency can lead to bone diseases such as rickets and osteomalacia. Above normal levels can lead to hypercalcemia




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