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How the amino acid leucine activates the key cell-growth regulator mTOR

How the amino acid leucine activates the key cell-growth regulator mTor 

Leucine is an essential amino acid that is important for several physiological processes in the body, including the regulation of protein synthesis. mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) is a protein kinase that plays a central role in the regulation of cell growth and metabolism.

How is mTOR triggered?

Activation of mTOR can be triggered by several different signals, including the presence of nutrients such as amino acids, particularly leucine. When leucine is present in the cell, it can bind to the Rag GTPases, which are small G proteins that act as molecular switches. This binding activates the Rag GTPases, which in turn activates mTOR.

What does the activation of mTOR cause?

The activation of mTOR has a number of effects on the cell. One of the main effects is the stimulation of cell growth, which can occur through the promotion of cell cycle progression and the suppression of cell death. In addition, mTOR activation also increases protein synthesis by promoting the transcription of mRNA and the translation of proteins.

How much Leucine do I need to activate mTOR?

Leucine has been shown to activate mTOR, a protein kinase that plays a central role in the regulation of cell growth and metabolism. However, the exact amount of leucine required to activate mTOR is not well understood and may vary depending on the physiological context.

It is difficult to provide a specific recommendation for the amount of leucine needed to activate mTOR as it may vary depending on the physiological context and the specific goals of the individual.

However, studies have suggested that leucine may be more effective at activating mTOR at higher concentrations, with some research suggesting that concentrations of leucine in the 2.5-to-3-gram range may be required to fully activate mTOR. The recommended daily intake of leucine for adults is approximately 12-16 mg/kg body weight per day. However, this recommendation is based on the general nutritional needs of the body and may not be specifically related to mTOR activation.

Summary

Leucine activates mTOR through the binding to and activation of Rag GTPases. The activation of mTOR has a number of effects on the cell, including the stimulation of muscle cellular growth and the increase in protein synthesis.

 

Author
David Bauder David J. Bauder, PA-C David Bauder, PA-C, is a certified physician assistant and the assistant medical director at Weight Loss and Vitality in Manassas and Alexandria, Virginia, Washington, DC; and Gaithersburg, MD. He enjoys helping patients optimize their physical and mental health to improve their overall well-being. He earned his physician assistant degree from the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. Afterward, he gained admission into the reputable graduate program for physician assistant studies at the University of Nebraska Health Science Center in Omaha. David has over 26 years of experience working as a physician assistant. He’s practiced in podiatry, family medicine, emergency medicine, general surgery, urgent care, and functional medicine.

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